1. I defend that syllogism in detail in The Case for Life: Equipping Christians to Engage the Culture (Wheaton: Crossway, 2009).
  2. Christopher Kaczor, The Ethics of Abortion: Women’s Rights, Human Life, and the Question of Justice, 1st ed. (New York: Routledge, 2011) pp.8-10.
  3. Naomi Wolf, “Our Bodies, Our Souls,” The New Republic, October 16, 1995, 26; Katha Pollitt, Pro: Reclaiming Abortion Rights (New York: Picador, 2014).
  4. For more, see Francis J. Beckwith & Gregory Koukl, Relativism: Feet Firmly Planted in Mid Air (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1998)
  5. Gregory Koukl, Precious Unborn Human Persons (Signal Hill: Stand to Reason Press, 1997).
  6. See T.W. Sadler, Langman’s Embryology, 5th ed. (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1993) p. 3; Keith L. Moore, The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1998),pp. 2-18. O’Rahilly, Ronand and Muller, Pabiola, Human Embryology and Teratology, 2nd ed. (New York: Wiley-Liss, 1996) pp. 8, 29.
    1. Bradley M. Patten, Human Embryology, 3rd ed., New York: McGraw Hill, 1968, page 43.
    2. A. Guttmacher, Life in the Making: The Story of Human Procreation, New York: Viking Press, 1933, p. 3.
    3. Subcommittee on Separation of Powers to Senate Judiciary Committee S-158, Report, 97th Congress, 1st Session, 1981.)
    4. Ibid.
    5. Hadley Arkes, First Things: An Inquiry into the First Principles of Morals and Justice (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986) p. 360.
    6. Francis J. Beckwith, “Dignity Never Been Photographed: Scientific Materialism, Enlightenment Liberalism, and Steven Pinker,” Ethics & Medicine, Summer 2010.
    7. Robert George and Christopher Tollefsen, Embryo: A Defense of Human Life (Princeton: Witherspoon Institute, 2011) pp. 123-125
    8. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics, 2nded. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993) pp. 85-86.
    9. David Boonin, A Defense of Abortion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003) p.20.
    10. Ronald Bailey, “Are Stem Cells Babies?” Reason, July 11, 2001.
    11. Robert George and Patrick Lee, “Reason, Science, and Stem Cells,” National Review, July 20, 2001.
    12. Maureen Condic, “Life: Defining the Beginning by the End,” First Things, May 2003.
    13. Condic, Ibid.
    14. Patrick Lee, Abortion & Unborn Human Life, 2nd ed. (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 2010) pp. 96-97.
    15. Ramesh Ponnuru, The Party of Death: The Democrats, the Media, the Courts, and the Disregard for Human Life (Washington, DC: Regency, 2006) p. 156.
    16. Robert George, “Embryo Ethics,” Daedalus, Winter 2008.
    17. Andrew Sullivan, “Only Human,” The New Republic, July 19, 2001.
    18. Maureen Condic, “A Biological Definition of the Human Embryo,” in Stephen Napier, ed., Persons, Moral Worth, and Embryos: A Critical Analysis of Pro-Choice Arguments (New York: Springer, 2011) p. 226.
    19. Condic, Ibid.
    20. Ponnuru, Party of Death, p. 101.
    21. George and Tollefsen, Embryo,p. 20-21.
    22. Dennis Prager, “Dogs, Humans, and God,” National Review, Aug. 20, 2013.
    23. Ramesh Ponnuru, The Party of Death (Washington, DC: Regnery, 2005) p.89.
    24. Richard Stith, “Arguing with Pro-Choicers,” First Things, November 4, 2006.
    25. Paper presented at the 1978 meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Physicians, October 26. http://www.drhern.com/pdfs/staffrx.pdf
    26. “A New Ethic for Medicine and Society,” California Medicine, September 1970.
    27. Ronald Dworkin, Life’s Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom (New York: Vintage, 1994) p. 3.
    28. Faye Wattleton, “Speaking Frankly,” Ms., May / June 1997, Volume VII, Number 6, 67.
    29. Naomi Wolf, “Our Bodies, Our Souls,” The New Republic, October 16, 1995, 26
    30. Camille Paglia, “Fresh Blood for the Vampire,” Salon, September 10, 2008.
    31. Stenberg v. Carhart, 2000.
      1. Mary Anne Warren, “On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion,” in The Problem of Abortion, 2ndedition, ed. Joel Fineberg (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1984). Cited in Beckwith, Defending Life, p. 47.
        1. Paul D. Simmons, “Personhood, the Bible, and the Abortion Debate,” article published by the Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice at www.rcrc.org/religion/es3/comp.html; Question: Why should anyone accept Simmons’s claim that there can be such a thing as a human being that is not a ‘person?’ He needs to argue for that, not merely assert it. He fails to do this in his article.
        2. Christopher Kaczor, A Defense of Dignity (South Bend: University of Notre Dame Press, 2013) pp.3-6.
        3. Christopher Kaczor, The Ethics of Abortion, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 2015) pp.18-19.
        4. Kaczor, Ethics of Abortion, 1st. ed., p. 53.
        5. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics, 2nd ed. (Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, 1993) pp.188-189.Joseph Fletcher,“Indicators of Humanhood: A Tentative Profile of Man,” Hastings Center Report 2 (1972): 1-4; cited in J.P. Moreland and Scott Rae, Body and Soul: Human Nature & the Crisis in Ethics (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2000) p. 245.
        6. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln (Rutgers University Press, 1953) vol. II, p. 222.
        1. David Boonin, A Defense of Abortion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002) pp.115-129.
        2. Kaczor, Ethics of Abortion, 1st ed., pp.66-67.
        3. Robert P. George, “Cloning Addendum,” National Review, July 15, 2002; Patrick Lee, “The Pro-Life Argument from Substantial Identity,” paper presented at the Tollefsen Lecture Series, St. Anselm’s College, November 14, 2002.
        4. Francis J. Beckwith, Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007) p.148.
        5. Stephen Schwarz, The Moral Question of Abortion (Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1990) pp.15-16.
        6. I’m indebted to Francis J. Beckwith for the wording of this paragraph (correspondence with author).
        7. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/01/22/statement-president-roe-v-wade-anniversary
        8. Beckwith, Defending Life, p.105.
        9. Desmond Ford, “The Theory of Forensic Atonement,” Loma Linda University, September 6, 2008.
        10. James Montgomery Boice, Romans, vol. 1, p.208.